Ataullakhanov Fazly Inoyatovich

Personal:

Date of Birth: April 23, 1946
Place of Birth: Samarkand, Former Soviet Union

Education:

M.S. (diploma) 1969 Moscow State University, School of Physics, Dept. of Biophysics.
Ph.D. 1974 Institute of Biological Physics, Natl. Acad. of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region.
Dr.Biol.Sci. 1984 Institute of Biological Physics, Natl. Acad. of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region.

Professional Experience: Research and Teaching:

1969-1970 Research Assistant, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow region, Russia
1970-1974 Graduate Student, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow region, Russia
1975-1979 Junior Scientific Researcher, Institute for Biological Screening of Chemical Compounds, Moscow region, Russia
1979-1982 Senior Scientific Researcher, Institute for Biological Screening of Chemical Compounds, Moscow region, Russia
1982-1984 Head of Laboratory, Institute for Biological Screening of Chemical Compounds, Moscow region, Russia
1984-1995 Invited Lecturer, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (teaching position)
1985-1987 Senior Scientific Researcher, Institute of Immunology, Moscow, Russia
1988-1989 Senior Scientific Researcher, Institute for Biological Screening of Chemical Compounds, Moscow region, Russia
1989-present Head of Laboratory of Physical Biochemistry, National Research Center for Hematology, Moscow, Russia
1995-present Professor of Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (teaching position)
2002-present Head of Laboratory of Metabolic Modeling and Bioinformatics, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, National Academy of Sciences
2006-present Director of the Center for Theoretical Problems of Physico-Chemical Pharmacology, Moscow
2010-present Research and Development Director, “Hemacore” Ltd, Moscow
2011-present Director of the Department of Biophysics and Systems Biology, Dmitry Rogachev Federal Research Center of Paediatric Haematology, Oncology, and Immunology, Moscow

Professional Societies and Memberships:

1975-present Member of the National Biochemical Society of Russia
1989-present Editorial Board, Journal of Membrane and Cell Biology, Moscow, Russia
1990-present Member of the Science Council at the National Research Center of Hematology, Moscow, Russia
1994-present Member of the Science Council at the Institute of the Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Pushino, Moscow region, Russia.
1996-present Member of Academy of the Natural Sciences, Russia
1997-present Member of the Biophysical Society of USA.
2006-present Chairmen of the Science Council at the Center for Theoretical Problems of Physico-Chemical Pharmacology
2007-present Editorial Board, Open Journal of Structural Biology, Bentham Pub, USA
2007-present Editorial Board, Journal of Biophysics, open access
2012-present Editorial Board, Biophysical journal

Scientific interests and summary of the results:

  1. Non-stationary kinetics of enzymatic reactions: I have worked out a new method to study enzymatic reactions under forced periodic regimes. A special device that realizes such conditions has been designed and constructed [2,6,10]. This method has been applied to study the kinetics of peroxidase reaction. The results obtained have lead to a detail molecular description of the mechanisms of the peroxidase-oxidase enzymatic reaction [40], which is now widely accepted (see Scheeline A et. al. The Peroxidase-Oxidase Oscillator and Its Constituent Chemistries. Chem. Rev. 1997 8;97(3):739-756). This mechanism is still regarded as fundamentally correct, and it is called FAB, after the authors of the original work (Fedkina, Ataullakhanov, Bronnikova [40]; both of my co-authors were my graduate students at the time of this work).
  2. Metabolic control of molecular networks in the cell.
    1. Quantitative modeling of the physiology of red blood cell. My lab has developed an elaborate model of red blood cell metabolism. It provides a quantitative description of this cell’s major functions, such as oxygen transport, osmoregulation, passage through narrow capillaries and defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The work has led to the discovery of important regulatory rules, called “invariants”, which govern the functioning of complex metabolic systems. Apparently, the behavior of such systems is determined by a mathematically simple function of one variable. For example, it has long been recognized that the major variable for energy metabolism in the cell is Atkinson’s “energy charge”. We found that the major function that controls energy metabolism is the rate of glycolysis as a function of “energy charge”. The dominant role of this reaction is revealed by the existence of metabolic reactions that are “futile” from a customary point of view (i.e. they do not produce any “useful product”); instead they serve to enable the dominance of the invariants. For example, such reactions include those that involve the AMP-desaminase. This enzyme catalyzes the biochemically useless reactions that cause the irreversible degradation of AMP. However, our work has revealed that this enzyme plays an important role in a metabolic regulation: it controls the total adenylate pool in the erythrocyte, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of energy metabolism. As a result, the regulation of cell volume becomes 10 times more effective. The approach we have developed for the study of metabolic systems has helped to uncover a coherent and logical hierarchical organization of the house-keeping processes, starting from individual enzymes and leading up to functioning of the red blood cell as a whole.
    2. Metabolic ”triggers”. Our theoretical analysis of the methionine metabolism network has led to a prediction that this network exhibits abrupt transitions between two metabolic states, each characterized by the distinct enzymatic reaction rates and metabolites concentrations that differ by more than 10-fold. The switching occurs in response to a change in the concentration of blood methionine. Such regulation guarantees a high efficiency of stabilization for the concentration of this essential amino acid, regardless of the variation in its supply through food consumption. This prediction has been now experimentally confirmed (manuscript in preparation). Although this metabolic trigger is the first to have been described, but it is possible that such regulation is widely used in biology.
    3. Hierarchical dependency and interplay between hormonal and metabolic regulations. Using mathematical modeling, we have examined the network of molecular processes that controls glycogen metabolism in muscle. This network is regulated by two relatively independent systems: one controls energy metabolism while the other changes enzyme activities via hormonal regulation. We have shown that the regulation of the energy metabolites normally dominates: the fluxes of glucose synthesis and consumption are fully determined by the energy system, while the hormonal regulation determines the maximal rate of glycogen consumption.
  3. Self-organization and spatial dynamics in molecular and cell biology.
    1. Spatio-temporal dynamics of blood clotting. Out theoretical analysis of this fascinating biological phenomenon has revealed that blood can be viewed as an active medium. The propagation of a front of blood coagulation abides by the same rules as the propagation of excitations in neurons or of the front of a flame. The significant difference between these phenomena and blood coagulation, though, is that this active medium can terminate the propagation of self-sustained auto waves. This discovery has led to a novel and unconventional view of the coagulation processes. We found that different phases of blood clotting (such as activation, propagation and termination) are controlled by separate blocks of clotting reactions. For example, it is usually assumed that the intrinsic coagulation pathway is a “metabolic atavism” and that it does not play any significant role in clotting. We have shown that the reactions of this pathway fully determine the second phase of clotting – its propagation. Our approach has predicted the existence of novel reactions that play a key role in the final phase of clotting (the termination of propagation). Furthermore, it has paved the way for development of a novel branch in the theory of active media and synergetics: blood is the first active medium ever shown to be “doubly” active. The initial theoretical analysis of such media has already shown that they exhibit novel self-organizing behaviors. Such mechanisms might also be responsible for differentiation during the development in multicellular organisms.
    2. Self-organization of cell division. We have developed novel mathematical models to study the mechanics and dynamics of tubulin polymers. Our model provides a description of molecular-chemical as well as mechanical processes that together determine the dynamic properties of microtubules. This approach has enabled us to provide a realistic estimate for the force that could be produce by depolymerizing microtubules pulling on a cargo, e.g. a mitotic chromosome. Apparently, when the coupling device is optimal the kinetochore microtubules can develop enough force to move chromosomes in the absence of conventional motors enzymes. These calculations have now been confirmed with experimental approaches.

Patents

1. Sinauridze EI, Gorbatenko AS, Azhigirova MA, Dereza TL, Ataullakhanov FI.
The method for correction of initial hemostasis disturbances by plasma expanders of new composition.
Russian Federation Patent No 2005140841 of December 27, 2005.

2. Ataullakhanov FI, Vitvitsky VM, Kostyna MA, Lisovskaya IL.
Method and device for measuring the deformability of erythrocytes.
Russian Federation Patent No 2052194 of January 10, 1996.

3. Agranenko VA, Ataullakhanov FI, Vitvitsky VM, Kiyatkin AB, Zhabotinsky AM, Markova NA, Sinauridze EI.
Method of preservation of pharmacocytes with entrapped L-asparaginase.
USSR author certificate No 1777887 of August 01, 1992.

Teaching experience.

Since 1984 I have been teaching students at the Physics department of the Moscow State University. During these years I’ve prepared and presented several different courses:

  1. Introduction to nonlinear dynamics, 24 h.
  2. Kinetics of enzymatic reactions and multienzyme systems, 24 h
  3. Metabolic network control, 24 h
  4. Cell biophysics (spatial dynamics and self organization of molecular and cellular processes).
  5. Introduction to molecular immunology.

I have supervised more than 70 candidates for a Master’s degree, more than 40 Ph.D. students and 4 scientists seeking Dr.Biol.Sci. degree (highest scientific degree in Russia).

List of PhD students:

Vitvitsky V.M.(1980), Pichugin A.V.(1983), Fedkina V.R.(1984), Bronnikova T.V. (1991), Pochilko A.V. (1994), Tuzhilova E.G.(1995), Komarova S.V.(1996), Kulikova E.V.(1997), Zarnitsina V.I.(1997), Mosharov E.V.(1999), Stepanova I.I.(1999), Martinov M.V.(1999), Yakovenko E.E.(1999), Krasotkina Y.V.(1999), Skorokhod A.A.(2000), Razumova M.N.(2000), Plotnikov A.G.(2000), Garmaeva T.C.(2001), Radaev S.M.(2001) Rozenberg J.M.(2002), Ovanesov M.V.(2002), Avseenko N.V.(2002), Lobanova E.S.(2003), Samarin S.A.(2004), Panteleev M.A(2005), Molodtsov M.I.(2007), Efremov A.K.(2008), Shishkin A.V.(2008), Fedjanina O.S.(2008), Galimova M.Kh.(2008), Scherbachenko I.M.(2008), Vuimo T.A.(2009), Zhudenkov K.V.(2009), Shibeko A.M.(2009), Kotova Y.N.(2009), Karamzin S.S.(2010), Fadeeva O.A.(2010), Tikunov A.P.(2010), Tikhonova A.G.(2010), Balandina A.N.(2010), Korendyaseva T.K.(2011), Volkov V.A.(2011), Tokarev A.A.(2012), Dashkevich N.M.(2013), Tarandovskiy I.D.(2013), Gudimchuk N.B.(2013), Zaitsev AV (2015).

List of Dr.Biol.Sci.

  1. Sarbash V.I.(2002)
  2. Lisovskaya I.L.(2004)
  3. Panteleev M.A.(2010)
  4. Sinauridze E.I. (2013)